When the generator is working, the fuel is burned in the cylinder and the exhaust gas is discharged out of the cylinder. When the work of the generator is normal and the fuel is completely burned, the main gas is H2O, CO2 and N2, and the exhaust gas is generally light gray. When the fuel is not completely burned or the generator is not working properly, there are also harmful substances such as hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and carbon particles, which make the color of the exhaust gas white, black, or blue. It can be seen that the color of the diesel generator exhaust can reflect the combustion status of the fuel, and also can reflect the working state of the generator.
First, exhaust black smoke
The black smoke in the exhaust is mainly carbon particles which are not fully burned. Therefore, the excess supply of fuel in the fuel supply system, the reduction of air in the intake system, the poor sealing of the cylinder body, the cylinder head and the piston, the poor injection quality of the injector, will make the combustion of the fuel incomplete and make the exhaust smoke black. The main reasons for the exhaust smoke are as follows:
1. the fuel supply of the high-pressure oil pump is too large or the fuel supply of each cylinder is uneven.
2., the valve seal is not strict, causing air leakage, and the compression pressure of the cylinder is low.
3. the air intake of the air filter is blocked and the intake air resistance is large.
4. cylinder liner, piston and piston ring wear seriously
5. injector is bad working
6. engine overload operation
7. the fuel injection advance angle of the fuel injection pump is too small, and the combustion process is moved to the exhaust process.
8. the control failure of the EFI system can be checked and eliminated by the high pressure oil pump adjustment, the injection test of the injector, the pressure measurement of the cylinder, the cleaning of the intake port, the adjustment of the advance angle of the fuel supply and the fault diagnosis of the electric injection system.
Two, exhaust white smoke
The white smoke in the exhaust is mainly a fuel particle or water vapor that is not fully atomized and burned. Therefore, the exhaust will be smoked when the fuel is not atomized or water enters the cylinder. The main reasons are as follows:
1. the temperature is low and the cylinder pressure is not enough, and the fuel atomization is not good, especially in the initial stage of cold start.
The 2. cylinder pad is damaged and the cooling water is penetrated into the cylinder
3. when the water content of the fuel is large, the exhaust is white smoke when cold starting, and the white smoke of the generator should be regarded as normal after the generator is warm. If the generator is in normal operation, the white smoke is still a fault. It is necessary to observe whether the cooling water in the water tank is not normally consumed, the work of each cylinder is normal and the water separator is too much water to check and divide. Analysis and troubleshooting
Three, exhaust blue smoke
Blue smoke is mainly caused by excessive oil passing into the combustion chamber. Therefore, any reason that causes the oil to run into the combustion chamber will make the exhaust blow blue smoke. The main reasons are as follows:
1. piston ring break
2. the oil holes on the upper ring of the oil ring are blocked by carbon and lose the oil scraping effect.
3. the opening of the piston ring turns together, causing the oil to run from the opening of the piston ring.
4. the piston ring is worn seriously or is stuck in the ring groove by carbon deposition.
5. the gas ring is reversed in the upper and lower directions, scraping the oil into the cylinder and burning it.
6. piston ring is not elastic enough and the quality is not qualified
7. gas valve oil seal improper assembly or aging failure, loss of sealing function
8. serious wear and tear of piston and cylinder
9. the amount of oil added is too much, so that the oil splashes too much, the oil ring is too late to scrape the excess oil of the cylinder wall.